Basics 2 – Lesson 5

Before we believe that we have determiners, and masculine/feminine figured out…consider the fact that there are some words that mean different things, if they are preceded by a masculine or feminine definitive article. They are:

Masculine Feminine
l’aide (helper) l’aide (help)
le critique (critic) la critique (criticism)
le guide (guide) la guide (horse reins)
le livre (book) la livre (pound)
le manche (handle) la manche (sleeve)
le mode (mode, method) la mode (fashion)
le moule (mold) la moule (mussel)
l’office (office, duty) l’office (pantry)
le page (page-boy) la page (book page)
le pendule (pendulum) la pendule (clock)
le poêle (stove) la poêle (frying pan)
le poste (poste) la poste (post office)
le somme (nap) la somme (sum)
le tour (tour, walk around) la tour (tower)
le vase (vase) la vase (mud)
le voile (veil) la voile (sail)

Vocabulary

Écrivent – to write (they)
filles – girls
Garcons – boys
lisent – to read (they)
Mangent –to eat (they)
enfants – children
Femmes – women

Purpose of Module

To continue to teach plurals of adjectives, and continue to use the verbs “to read” which is “lire”, “to eat” which is “manger” and “to read” which is “lire”.

The verb “to read”, “lire” is conjugated as follows:

Je lis – I read
tu lis – You read (familiar)
il/elle lit – He/She reads
nous lisons – We read
vous lisez – You read (plural)
ils/elles lisent – They read

Sentences

Elles écrivent – They write
Elles écrivent une letter – They write a letter
Ils mangent une orange – They eat an orange
Les enfants – The children
Les femmes – The women or wives
Les enfants et les femmes – The children and the women
Ils lisent le journal – They read the newspaper
J’aime les filles – I like the girls
J’aime les femmes – I like the women
Les garçons sont calmes – The boys are calm
Les garçons riches – The rich boys
L’homme et la femme écrivent une letter – The man and the woman write a letter
Ils mangent une orange – They are eating an orange
Les filles lisent un journal – The girls read a newspaper

Notes

The practice of having your adjectives match in both gender and quantity is being stressed again in this module. When you come upon a word, try to note its’ gender. La (es) fille(s) can mean a woman or a wife.

We are starting to see adjectives in the modules. To get a quick handle on the subject, go here:

http://www.frenchlearner.com/adjectives/

and note that there are certain situations where the adjective is placed BEFORE the noun. These situations usually have to do when you’re describing beauty, age, good and bad as well as size. This is remembered by using the mnemonic “BAGS goes before the noun”

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Basics 2 – Lesson 4

Vocabulary

lit – read (he/she/it)
lisons – read (we)
journal – newspaper
menu  – menu
livres – books
elles – they (feminine)
ils – they (masculine)

Purpose of Module

To continue to teach plurals of adjectives, and to introduce the verbs “to read” which is “lire”. Other verbs are also used that were covered in previous modules.

The verb “to read”, “lire” is conjugated as follows:

Je lis – I read
tu lis – You read (familiar)
il/elle lit – He/She reads
nous lisons – We read
vous lisez – You read (plural)
ils/elles lisent – They read

Sentences

Les livres sont rouges – The books are red
Elle lit une letter – She reads a letter
Nous lisons le livre – We read the book
Elles sont rouges – They are red
Ils sont riches et calmes – They are rich and calm
Le garçon lit le menu – The boy reads the menu
J’écris le menu – I write the menu
J’aime les livres rouges – I like the red books
Elle a un journal – She has a newspaper
Nous aimons les livres – We like the books
Elles sont riches – They are rich
Nous avons le menu – We like the menu

Notes

The practice of having your adjectives match in both gender and quantity is being stressed more in this module. If you get a gender wrong, i.e. pomme (apple) is feminine, but you may be tempted to say “le pomme”. To remember it is feminine, think of Eve eating the apple, or the “a” in apple being moved to “la”. You will need to us many memory aids to remember genders because they loosely follow rules. I cover genders in these posts:

https://duolinguist.wordpress.com/2014/05/09/masculine/

https://duolinguist.wordpress.com/2014/05/09/feminine/

Basics 2 – Lesson 3

Vocabulary

Vous – you, informal and plural
mangez – eat (you, pl.)
êtes – are (tu, formal you)
avez  – have (you, pl.)
avons – have (we)
mangeons – eat (we)
aimons – like (we)

Purpose of Module

To continue to teach plurals of adjectives, and to continue to use the verbs “to like/love” which is “aimer”, “to eat”, which is “manger”, and “to have”, which is “avoir”.

The verb “to like”, “aimer” is conjugated as follows:

J’aime – I like
tu aimes – You like (familiar)
il/elle aime – He/She likes
nous aimons – We like
vous aimez – You like (plural)
ils/elles aiment – They like

The verb “to eat”, “manger” is conjugated as follows:

je mange – I eat
tu manges – You (familiar) eat
il/elle mange – He/She eat
nous mangeons – We eat
vous mangez – You eat  (plural)
ils/elles mangent – They eat

The verb “to have”, “avoir” is conjugated as follows:

J’ai – I have
tu as – You (familiar) have
il/elle a – He/She has
nous avons – We have
vous avez – You have (plural)
ils/elles ont – They have

Sentences

Nous avons une pomme – We have an apple
Et vous? And you?
Nous mangeons une pomme – We eat an apple
Vous êtes une femme et je suis un garcon – You are a woman and I am a boy
Vous êtes une femme – You are a woman
Nous aimons le chat – We like the cat
Vous mangez une orange – You eat an orange
Vous avez un chat – You have a cat
Nous avons une robe – We have a dress
Nous mangeons la pomme – We are eating the apple

Notes
The application is beginning to see if you pay attention to “a” and “the”, by throwing one after the other. This lesson focused on “vous” and “nous” forms of verbs we have already seen. “Vous avez” sounds like “voo-zah-vay” because of the “liason”.

Liasions – This is where the French speaker does not normally say the silent consonant at the end of a word, but then does when they encounter word that begins with a vowel. They’ll use the last letter as the first letter for that vowel starting word. It seems strange, but it helps their word fluency, and you’ll eventually get used to it.

http://french.about.com/library/pronunciation/bl-liaisons.htm

Basics 2 – Lesson 2

Vocabulary

J’– I (contracted, loses the vowel when in front of a vowel, for smoother speech)
aime – like (love)
écris – write
livre – book
robes – dresses
lettre – letter
rouges – red (plural)

Purpose of Module

To continue to teach plurals of adjectives, and to introduce the verbs “to like/love” which is “aimer”, and “to write”, which is “écrire”.

The verb “to like”, “aimer” is conjugated as follows:

J’aime – I like
tu aimes – You like (familiar)
il/elle aime – He/She likes
nous aimons – We like
vous aimez – You like (plural)
ils/elles aiment – They like

The verb “to write”, “écrire” is conjugated as follows:

j’écris – I write
tu écris – You write (familiar)
il/elle écrit – He/She likes
nous écrivons – We like
vous écrivez – You like (plural)
ils/ells écrivent – They like

Sentences

La pomme et le livre sont rouges – The apple and the book are red
Les robes et la pomme sont rouges – The dresses and the apple are red
Les robes sont rouges – The dresses are red
J’aime les robes – I like the dresses
La lettre est rouge – The letter is red
J’écris une lettre – I write a letter/I am writing a letter
J’écris un livre – I write a book/I am writing a book
Le livre est noir – The book is black

Notes

“j’aime” sounds like “jem”
Remember that plurals will not sound plural, so look at the verb. Another way to spot plurals is to know that the plural of “la” and “le” is “les” regardless. If you hear “lay robe”, it must be “les robes” because the singular is “la robe”, which sounds like “lah robe”.

Basics 2 – Lesson 1

Vocabulary

riches – rich (plural)
calmes – calm (plural)
les – the (plural, both masc. and fem)
nous – we
sommes – are (we)
hommes – men
sont – are (they)

Purpose of Module

To introduce plurals of adjectives, and to continue to work through the present tense of the verb “to be”, which is “être”. The focus is on “nous sommes” or “we are”, and “ils/ells sont” or “they are” in English. The verb “to be”, “être” is conjugated as follows:

je suis – I am
tu es – You are (familiar)
il/elle est – He/She is
vous êtes – You are (plural)
nous sommes – We are
ils/elles sont – They are

Sentences

Nous sommes riches – We are rich
Nous sommes calmes – We are calm
Nous sommes un garçon et une fille – We are a boy and a girl
Le garçon et la fille sont calmes – The boy and the girl are calm
Les hommes – The men
Les hommes sont calmes – The men are calm
Les hommes sont riches – The men are rich
Le garçon et la fille sont calmes – The boy and the girl are calm

Notes

“Les hommes” sounds like “lay ohm” and you do not hear the “s” ending of either word. You only know it is plural by knowing that “L’homme” sound like “lum”. The same is true for the other adjectives that are plural. They sound like they do not have an “s” or “es” so you have to pay attention to the pronoun and verb, to deduce the adjective. The final consonants that are and are not pronounced by the French are covered here:

https://duolinguist.wordpress.com/2014/02/18/final-consonants/

Basics 1 – Lesson 5

https://quizlet.com/18272421/duolingo-french-basics-5-flash-cards/

the children les enfants
the rice of the children le riz des enfants
the men les hommes
the women les femmes
we are (some) men nous sommes des hommes
we are (some) women nous sommes des femmes
the men’s rice le riz des hommes
the women’s rice le riz des femmes
we are children nous sommes des enfants
the bread of the men le pain des hommes
the man drinks some water l’homme boit de l’eau
you drink the red wine tu bois le vin rouge
the woman speaks la femme parle
the child has some rice l’enfant a du riz
the girl has some bread la fille a du pain
the woman has some milk la femme a du lait

Basics 1 – Lesson 4

Note: there is a masculine and feminine version of most adjectives, and the adjective has to match the gender of the noun it is modifying. If the noun is plural, the adjective must also be plural. The feminine adjective needs to have what is bracketed added to the word.
Example: a male cat (chat) is “calm”, while a female cat (chatte) is “calme”

Likewise, the male version of something also needs the bracketed letter(s) added:
Example: chat is a male cat, chatte is a female cat.

https://quizlet.com/18271388/duolingo-french-basics-4-flash-cards/

Vocabulary
elle – she
calm(e) – calm
chat(te) – cat
noir(e) – black
robe – dress
a – he/she/it has
et – and

Purpose of Module

To continue to use the definite articles in French, introduce another color (noir), an adjective (calme), and a few more objects (chat, robe). We are also introduced to the present tense of the verb “to have”, which is “avoir”. The focus is on “il/elle a” or “he/she has” in English. The verb “to have”, avoir, is conjugated as follows:

J’ai – I have
tu as – You (familiar) have
il/elle a – He/She has
nous avons – We have
vous avez – You have (plural)
ils/elles ont – They have

Sentences

Le chat – The cat
Le chat est noir – The cat is black
Il a un chat – He has a cat
La robe – The dress
Elle mange – She eats
Elle mange une orange – She eats an orange
Je suis calme – I am calm
Il est calme – He is calm
Il a un enfant – He has a child
Elle a une robe – She has a dress
Je mange une pomme et elle mange une pomme – I eat an apple and she eats an apple
Tu es une femme, et je suis un homme – You are a woman and I am a man

Notes

“Il” and “Elle” sound very similar, as does “Ils” and “Il”, and “Elles” and “Elle”. The easiest way to tell them apart is to look for the verb conjugation, but sometimes you do not have this option, so expect to miss these plurals, and don’t take it too hard.

Although we haven’t seen it yet, there is another subject used with verbs other than je, tu, vous, il/elle, nous and ils/ells. “On” is an impersonal subject pronoun, similar to when English speakers use “one” with a verb (i.e. what does one do when one is in New York City?). The French use of “on” is very frequent in informal conversation. A phrase like “one works a lot here” would be “on travaille beacoup ici” and “they speak English in the United States” would be “on parle anglais aux Êtats-Unis”. The verb is conjugated as if using “he/she/it”, so there’s nothing tricky about it, other than seeing “on” for the first time and wondering what’s going on, and what does one do?